he problems of traditional teacher-centered translation classrooms are noted and discussed (Király, 1995, 2000; Lai, 2002; Liao, 2007) in which the
translation instructor explains concepts and skills, and then gives assignments. After that, the instructor points out students' deviation from the ideal
translation, and expects them not to make same errors in the future. Such a translation classroom greatly relies on linguistics and thus is ruled by
grammatical aspects of translation (Király, 1995: 8). In this way, the students' interest and confidence in translation are gradually discouraged and
they often hesitate to bring up creative versions in order not to be singled out in the classroom. Also, the traditional instructor-dominated approach,
mainly focusing on equivalence in translation, ignores other factors that make each translated version unique, such as the translators' idiolect, stylistic
preference, or attention to the target language. Therefore, actively participating in translation training seems to be impossible for translation trainees.
Nonetheless, it is believed that translation training at the university level shall give priority to building up responsibility and independence, which is
the foundation of professional translation (Gabrian, 1986: 54, cited in Király, 1995: 9). Therefore, in the new translation pedagogy proposed by
Király (1995) the emphasis shifts from teacher-centered to student-centered methods, and the main task of the instructor is to show various
translation paths and to encourage students to be independent. In this way, students gradually become able to translate responsibly in professional
situations (Holz-Mänttäri, 1984: 80, cited in Király, 1995: 21). On the other hand, the text type of travel guides is incorporated into
translation studies based on its scope and intercultural communicative function. Reiss (1981: 129, cited in Munday, 2008: 72) regards travel guides
advertising the source culture as operative texts which are "adaptive" in that they are to be tailored to the needs and conventions of the receptors in the
In this study, the instructor-researcher attempts to apply the collaborative learning approach in the translation classroom for students to complete the
assignment of translating a travel guide as a case study. The purpose of this study is to see if the use of collaborative learning approach could improve
students' responsibility and independence from the instructor. In addition, from the text analysis of students' assignments, we can find out whether
collaboration can further help in their translation in terms of translating a travel guide, so that the students can apply adaptive translation to such a
text type. More specifically, the study attempts to address the following two research questions:
In what way and to what extent does collaborative learning approach help improve translation quality?
How does the collaborative learning approach improve students' performance in achieving the desired effect in the target text of a travel guide?
Collaborative learning refers to activities that are learned and carried out by pairs or small interactive groups. Different from cooperative learning
which is still led by the instructor, collaborative learning means two or more students working together, sharing the workload, and at the same time
achieving the intended learning outcomes (Barkley, Cross, and Major, 2005: 5). Generally speaking, some features of collaborative learning are regarded as
essential. The first feature of collaborative learning is intentional design, in which instructors have to structure intentional learning activities for
students. Collaboration is another important feature. That is, all participants of the groups need to engage actively toward the objectives set. However,
equitable engagement of all participants is not enough. Meaningful learning, the third feature of collaborative learning, must take place in which students
must increase their knowledge and understanding during the process and the intentional instructional goals of the task must be achieved.
The instructor may need to lead students to analyze complicated sentences before giving the assignment in order to prevent any safe translation versions.
Research on whether collaborative learning promotes and improves learning has been extensive and fruitful. Astin's study (1993: 427) reports that by using
the approach the outcomes are better than those produced by traditional competitive approaches, which means collaborative learning could be more
instrumental than traditional pedagogy, since it motivates students to be more engaged in the learning process. Recently the approach has been widely
applied in technology-enhanced or web-based classrooms, such as Zhao & Kanji (2001), Daradoumis, Caballé, Juan and Xhafa (2011), Roberts (2005),
or Rubens, Emans, Leinonen, Skarmeta and Simons (2005), to name just a few. These researchers mostly report that the use of collaborative learning method
can stimulate the acquisition of different skills in learning, enhance interpersonal communication, and improve performance.
In translation teaching, Király (1995, 2000) was the first to propose a social-constructivist approach for collaboration, calling for an evolution
from teacher-oriented classrooms to teaching-oriented ones. In this way, he attempts to turn the passive and individual-centered student into an active
translator with multi-perspectives. Furthermore, a collaborative teaching environment can promote students' interaction and active participation during the
process (Király et al, 2003: 51). In addition, Romney (1996, 1997) also finds that collaborative learning can be beneficial in translation courses.
She further divides the advantages into three levels. On a personal level, students are more willing to share their difficulties with others and feel less
stressful when speaking in front of familiar group members. On a social level, students become tolerant of different opinions, and sometimes they even have
to compromise. Lastly, the approach improves their performance through discussion on an academic level.
In additrion to the benefits of the collaborative method, some translation instructors have noted some disadvantages by means of questionnaires. In her
study, Shi (2000) finds that some students were not fully engaged in group discussions and regarded the approach as ineffective. Moreover, Lai (2002)
reports from a translation practicum in which students were divided into five groups that large numbers of students could be problematic in running the
approach effectively. Also, she points out that the low proficiency of students in the target language led to extra difficulties for members in the same
group. Conducting a study on a book translation project, Yeh (2011) notes that some students could not understand the meaning in some collaborative
learning activities and hence regarded them as unhelpful. Also, it seems certain that certain students may dominate the discussion, which happened mostly
outside the class time. In addition, most students, though benefiting from collaborative learning, still need the instructor's feedback from time to time.
Similarly, Barros (2011) suggests that the role of teachers is still indispensable in terms of providing support and follow-up activities in order to help
students work collaboratively.
The above studies show that there are advantages and disadvantages in applying collaborative learning in translation classrooms. They have also illustrated
that students mostly have positive attitudes towards the approach. However, it seems that so far there is not much empirical study indicating whether
collaborative learning indeed improves students' performance in translation in terms of quality. The study, therefore, intends to examine students'
translation of a travel guide to see in what way and to what extent the approach can contribute to students' performance to achieve the aim of tailoring
the original text to the needs of its receivers.
II. Translating Travel Guides
According to Reiss' categorization (1977/89: 108-109, in Munday, 2001: 73), the text type of travel guides can be classified as "operative" having the aim
of appealing or persuading its receivers to perform certain acts. Hence its language use shall be dialogic in order to "induce behavioral responses."
Translating travel guides in this way serves to arouse the target readers' interest in the source culture prompting them to visit the place in person.
According to Reiss (ibid: 75), the reproduction of the predominant function of the ST will influence how the TT is judged and therefore she proposes
specific translation methods based on different text types. In her opinion, the TT of an operative text should focus on eliciting the longing response from
the receivers, and translators shall use the adaptive method to create the same effect produced by the source text. On the other hand, applying "dominant
contextual focus" to determine different text types, Hatim and Mason (1990: 156) locate the text type of advertisement, including travel guides, in the
group of instructional texts with the dominant focus on provoking a response or behavior in the receiving culture. Nord (1997: 50) further distinguishes
three different functions for translating instrumental texts, such as tourist information texts, to illustrate that the function of the source text may not
be the same as that of the target text. She also points out that translating advertisements should serve an equifunctional role to that of the source
culture and it shall correspond to Reiss' communicative translation, where readers do not notice they are reading a translation.
In translation studies, some researchers propose strategies of translating advertisements based on qualitative analysis. Placing a focus on consumers'
psychology, outlook, and "popular taste" as important factors to be successful in translating advertisements, Ho (2004) argues for an "intentional
betrayal" strategy as an effective and convincing approach. Furthermore, Jettmarova, Piotrowska, and Zauberberga (1995) believe that adaptation is regarded
as a prerequisite of effective translation and that the success of the translation depends greatly upon the translator's understanding of the "adaptive"
nature in translating advertisements, which suggests how target readers are assumed to respond to the text. Similarly, Smith and Klein-Braley (1995) point
out five strategies for translating advertisements. Nonetheless, the major problem for training translators when encountering such texts can be the their
unwillingness to leave the safe haven of a "straight translation" and to apply a less literal strategy. In their opinion, such a translation can be
unsuitable as it fails to consider the receivers' need in the target culture. In addition, such a translation definitely enjoys low prestige in the
receiving culture and leads to a prevailing impression that native speakers' translation is more satisfying. When it comes to the translation quality of
native speakers, Wang (2009) finds that native speakers of English have good linguistic quality in translation, while making more semantic errors. Website
translation produced by Chinese, on the other hand, is prone to grammatical errors and Chinglish. Lastly, Dybiec (2008) suggests that more attention be
paid to culture-specific terms while translating tourists' guidebooks, since the translation is full of cultural elements, which help to build cultural
identities through linguistic use.
In this study, we will examine translation strategies students' apply when they deal with a travel guide. Recent research on translation strategies brings
about sets of taxonomies for translators' use during the process (Baker, 1992: 26-42; Fawcett, 1997: 27-52; Lörscher, 1992). For example, when it
comes to equivalence at the word level in translation, Baker (1992: 26-42) proposes several translation strategies used by professional translators as
superordinate, more neutral/less expressive words, cultural substitution, loan words, paraphrasing, omission, and illustration while translation strategies
used to achieve equivalence beyond word level such as idioms include using terms of similar meanings and similar/different forms, paraphrasing, and
omission (ibid: 71-78). In addition, Fawcett (1997) devotes a whole chapter in his book to translation techniques and separates them by viewpoints from
Russia, Canada, and America. Among these three sets of translation techniques, we are familiar with those deriving from Viney and Darbelnet's taxonomies
(1958, cited in Fawcett, 1997: 34) such as borrowing, calque, literal translation, transposition, modulation, equivalence, and adaptation. Some of the
elements in these two systems are similar with different names and thus it can be confusing if introduced at the same time to students. Based on a
think-aloud data corpus, Lörscher (1992) found translation strategies such as realizing and verbalizing a translational problem, monitoring and
rephrasing SL or TL text segments, rephrasing TL text segments, mental organizing SL or TL text segments, and others.
It is hoped that students working within a group can feel more comfortable and be motivated to complete the assignment according to literature reviewed
above. Also we hypothesize that the translation strategies used by a student group can be more diverse than those completing the assignment individually.
Hence we tend to investigate and compare students' assignments conducted by teamwork and those finished individually to see if more and different
translation strategies appear in students' group work. At the same time we will discuss if group works achieve better effect of translating a travel guide
and serve an equifunctional role to that of the source text (Nord, 1997: 50).
The participants chosen for this study are 32 juniors taking the course "Professional Translation," majoring in Applied Linguistics and Language Study at a
university in Northern Taiwan. Since the course is given in the second year of the T & I program offered by the department, it is expected that they
have already had one-year experience in translation practice and interpretation training. In other words, these participants should be familiar with basic
concept and principles in translation and interpreting when this study begins. While taking this course of "Professional Translation," certain students
interested in completing the T & I program can take "News Trans-editing," and "Consecutive Interpretation," as elective courses at the same time.
V. Data Analysis and discussion
In order to successfully integrate the collaborative learning approach into the translation classroom, the instructor-researcher performed a series of
preparatory activities to familiarize the students with concepts of translating travel guides. As intentional design, the first feature of collaborative
learning and the foundation of the collaborative learning process, instructors shall structure careful and deliberate learning activities in order to reach
the goal of the course design and at the same time enhance students' collaborative learning (Barkley et al, 2005). Before distributing the assignment, the
instructor-researcher firstly made the students do the text analysis of the source text by giving students some time to discuss the function of the source
text, the possible source readers, the corresponding function of the target text, and target readers with their group members. Then the instructor joined
their discussion to devise any suitable strategies they could use in translation. Later the instructor used real examples to show the students the
potential strategies for translating travel guides. In this way, students can have a better and broad view of the translation assignment in a structured
way, which corresponds to the concept of collaborative learning. Furthermore, students may have an understanding of the potential strategies they can call
on during the translation process in order to reach the goal of completing the assignment and at the same time achieve the function that their translation
should provide as a travel guide.
After the preparatory activities, students were given the assignment to be completed by a deadline. In the following analysis, we will look at the
translation strategies in the assignments done by groups or individual student to see to what extent and in what way the collaborative learning approach is
put into use from a qualitative perspective. In the following we will first discuss students' use of terms and then of sentences. It is important to note
that in the source text there are many trendy words and terms as it introduces night clubs in New York and hence it would be interesting to see how
students in Taiwan translate the original in order to make the American culture understood by their target readers. The original text can be accessed at
the following website with a title: Behind the Velvet Ropes ( http://visitnewyorkguide.pagician.com/VNY/artsnightlife/).
In this text example, the phrase "[b]ehind the velvet ropes," is chosen to be discussed. Not only is this phrase the tile of the travel guide, but the term
"the velvet ropes" in the phrase requires discussion in the language transfer since there is no exact corresponding term in Chinese as it means the rope
holding back fans while a celebrity is present. Hence we expect that students' group work can bring more diversity and creativity as they choose to gather
and discuss the assignment together rather than translate alone. For the following Chinese versions from four groups, we can see Group 1 tried to evade the
source term "the velvet ropes" in their translation, while the other three did translate the term. In this way Group 1 applied the omission strategy, but
to some extent the image of waiting behind the velvet ropes was lost in this version. Furthermore, it seems the group found no correspondence in the target
language so that it applied a compensatory strategy by adding another phrase to further explain the whole text was about. On the other hand, other three
versions more or less translated the title with a creative term which is not well- known. These versions show that students collaborated to find a
suitable, though not well-known term in their assignment.
l G1: 花花世界後的秘密─紐約夜生活
l G2: 天鵝絨繩的背後
l G3: 紐約夜生活─等待線之外
l G4: 紐約夜生活：穿越紅龍，尋歡作樂
For the following ten versions done by students individually, we can see five versions omitting the source term "the velvet ropes," in their translation
while in the remaining five versions the target term in four versions is evidently provided by the English-Chinese dictionaries or electronic dictionaries.
In other words, it could be possible that students had no one to discuss with, since they had to finish the assignment alone so they turned to their
dictionaries for help. Nonetheless, it is very possible that failing to find any correspondence in the dictionaries, these students made up a term on their
own, which is in some way hard to understand, especially for first-time New York visitors. In this way, although these four versions finally came up with a
term for "the velvet rope," yet they did not achieve the function the target text should give as a travel guide. On the other hand, there are two versions
omitting the term and applying the compensatory strategy as discussed above and three versions from S1, S2, and S3, are not corresponding to the original
and it can be assumed that students working on the assignment alone may have misunderstood the original or misrepresented the original.
l S1: 門後的花花世界
l S2: 入場要求的真相
l S3: 夜店門後的絢麗世界
l S4: 紐約夜生活─華麗的冒險
l S5: 紐約夜生活─通吃大小夜店的秘密
l S6: 在絲絨背後的秘密
l S7: 等待線後頭的學問
l S8: 紐約的夜生活：在天鵝絨繩後
l S9: 在天鵝絨線後方的紐約夜生活
Next we are going to examine the sentence "the sky is the limit," within the sentence, "[f]or women, the sky is the limit, so get as glam as you can." The
original is within the context of teaching boys and girls how to take care of their clothing when going clubbing in New York. The source uses this sentence
to indicate that girls should just make themselves as attractive as possible as the sentence means there is no limit at all. Let us read how students
working in groups translated this sentence in the following. They somehow attempted to turn the negative "limit" in the source text to a positive meaning
in Chinese. We can see only G3 following the original closely. The other three versions showed their creativity which could possibly come from the
brainstorming within the group. In addition, these three versions at the same time suggest that these three groups of students must have understood the
context so well that their creativity was inspired during the process which could also be regarded as a successful example of collaborating learning. In
addition, such creativity does serve an equifunctional role to that of the source culture (Nord, 1997: 50).
l G1: 愛怎麼穿就怎麼穿
l G2: 美麗是不可限量的
l G3: 並沒有任何限制
l G4: 有很大的發揮空間
For the ten versions submitted by individual students, it is evident that they applied different strategies to tackle this sentence, but such diversity
nonetheless showed that they had insufficient understanding of the original or failing to find corresponding terms in the target language. First two
students chose to omit the sentence. Possibly due to the same reasons, Student 3's version followed the source literally for which target readers may need
to think twice before totally understanding this version. In other words, student 3's version reads like a translation, which means it is not a good
advertisement translation. For versions from 4 to 7, they all followed the original, though not literally, failing to tailor the source to the needs of
their receivers in Taiwan. It seems that students finishing their assignment alone did not show much creativity potentially because they had no one to
discuss with. We could even find a version suggesting the student's total misunderstanding of the original in the 8th version. Only the last two
of the ten versions were rather creative.
l S1: X
l S2: X
l S3: 天空才是你的極限
l S4: 是沒有什麼限制的
l S5: 就沒甚麼限制
l S6: 穿著並沒有很多限制
l S7: 服裝是沒有設限的
l S8: 讓客人們有一點摸不著頭緒
l S9: 有較多的發展空間
l S10: 美麗是不可限量的
In this example, we are looking at the underlined part in this sentence, "[b]ouncers don't really care who you are, and demanding to get in is the best way to ensure that you don't," This part is a bit challenging for students to understand if they paid less attention
to the sentence structure. Let us examine the group translations first. From the four versions, two deviate from the original. Group 1 seemed to
misunderstand the original, so that their version reads very confusing, while Group 2 and 3 skipped the original meaning and tried to use the compensation
strategy to explain the concept for their readers. It is possible that students in Group 3 did not get a clear picture of the original so they created
their own sentence on the one hand corresponding to the context where the sentence is located, and on the other hand attempted to give a "safe" version. In
this way, the target readers have no way to know that their translation is actually different from the original. The second version, however, can be deemed
as a creative interpretation by the students as this version makes sense in the context and uses idioms that target readers are familiar with. Finally, the
last version omitted the original without adding anything, which shows that this group had trouble understanding this sentence although they had spent some
time together for the discussion.
n G1: 門衛才不在乎你是誰， 而強求進場是確保你不在乎的最好方法。
n G2: 夜店的安管通常都不會管你的身分地位， 佯裝大牌執意要進入反而自曝其短。
n G3: 夜店保鑣根本不在乎也不知道你是誰，
n G4: 夜店安管不會管你是誰
For the following ten versions, we find the first version was just the opposite of the original, which suggests that the student totally misunderstood the
original. Also the second version, same as the version provided by G1 in the above discussion, is rather confusing. For versions 2 to 6, the strategies are
the same as discussed above for version 3. In this way there seems to be a tendency that students may try to give a "safe" version in the context in order
to give the impression that they understood the original. Nonetheless, their versions were hard to comprehend for target readers which failed to achieve
the purpose of translating a travel guide. Lastly, only the last two versions reproduced the meanings of the original, suggesting that only two students
fully understood the original sentence structure.
n S1: 安管根本不管你是哪根蔥， 所以堅決要入場是最好的辦法。
n S2: 門衛才不在乎你是誰， 而強求進場是確保你不在乎的最好方法。
n S3: 夜店的保鏢不會在乎你是誰
n S4: 保鑣通常不會管你是誰，
n S5: 保鑣其實並不在乎你的身分，
n S6: 保鑣並不真的在乎你是什麼身分，
n S8: 入口的管理者其實並不在乎你是誰，
n S9: 夜店保鑣其實不會在意你的身分，而頂撞保鑣只會減少他們讓你進場的可能 性。
n S10: 保鑣並不會在意你是誰，
1. Summary of the results
The study sets out to investigate if collaborative learning can help translation quality and assist students to adapt the source, tailoring it for target
readers. With an intention to turn a teacher-centered translation classroom into a student-centered one, the instructor-researcher expects that a sense of
independence and responsibility can be developed through students' collaborative learning. At the same time, it is also hoped that students can feel less
stressful while discussing with their group members so as to complete the assignment with high quality. By conducting clearly structured preparatory
activities before the assignment, the instructor-researcher hopes that students had a broader view of the assignment and these preparatory steps can be
further served as supplementary materials for background knowledge in terms of translating the travel guide. During the process, the students learned about
the source and target readers, strategies, and most importantly, about this travel guide as a text type to be adapted. It is important to note that in
order to ensure students' learning of the meaning(Barkley et al, 2005) during the collaboration, the instructor-researcher later asked the whole class to
discuss different versions of the original and to vote for the best version of the travel guide.
For the text analysis, we investigated translations performed by student groups and others completed individually. Looked at the strategies students may
have called on during the translation process so that we ccould discuss in what way and to what extent collaborative learning assisted students in their
assignments. We can thus summarize some important findings from the text analysis. First, collaborative learning is more effective and inspires students'
creativity when it comes to terms or phrases they are not familiar with as shown in the case of "velvet ropes," for which no exact corresponding term
exists in Chinese. In addition, it is assumed that unsatisfactory versions submitted by students working alone resulted from the fact that these students
had no one to discuss with. It turned out that they had to rely on their paper or electronic dictionaries, but most of the time they failed to find a
proper term and ended up choosing the term very close to the original. In this way their versions are prone to confuse target readers and the purpose of
translating a travel guide is lost. Second, there seems to be a tendency that students, whether working in groups or on their own, attempted giving a
"safe" version when they found themselves having difficulties in understanding the original. Hence, they tried to interpret the original in their own ways
based on the context. Though their texts make sense, yet they may not provide the correct information for target readers, i.e., people who would like to
visit night clubs in New York. Therefore their translations failed to serve an equifunctional role to that of the source text (Nord, 1997: 50). Lastly, it
has been found that collaborative learning can to some extent enhance students' translation quality even when they confront difficult sentences as
suggested in example 3. Also the unique interpretation of the original and the use of idioms that target readers are familiar with greatly tailored the
original for the need of target readers.
The implications of this study
Based on the findings of this study, collaborative learning can to some extent improve students' translation performance and thus it can be integrated into
translation classrooms to replace the teacher-centered approach. Although the use of collaborative learning can enhance students' translation quality,
especially when creativity is required, certain implications in designing the curriculum can be drawn from this study. First of all, while students were
guided step by step from a series of preparatory activities before their assignment, and they were able to finish the assignment on their own independently
of any assistance from the instructor, it seems the role of the instructor is still indispensable during the learning process, which is pointed out by Yeh
(2011). In other words, students at this stage still need their instructor's constant guidance or feedback so that they do not "get lost" during the
learning process. Hence the instructors may need to join their discussion from time to time and provide support or design more follow-up activities as
suggested by Barros (2011). Secondly, the instructor may need to lead students to analyze complicated sentences before giving the assignment in order to
prevent any "safe" translation versions. Also, students should be required to reinforce their proficiency in translation, as we find there are quite a few
cases suggesting students' misunderstanding or insufficient understanding of the original.
3. Limitations of the study and suggestions for future research
The present study is not without its limitations. First, since it is limited to using a travel guide as the source text for university juniors in the
translation classroom, the result cannot be generalized to other text types and other groups of translation learners with different levels of
proficiencies, academic majors, and backgrounds. As for future research, it would be important to add translation data from Chinese to English to see if
collaborative learning also works in that case. Furthermore, it could also be worthwhile to investigate how the role of the instructor changes if the
collaborative learning approach is applied to different groups of learners in translation.
Astin, A. (1993) What Matters in College? San Francisco: Jossey-Bass.
Baker, M. (1992) In Other Words. London: Routledge.
Barkley, E. R., Cross, K. P., & Major, H. H. (2005) Collaborative Learning Techniques: A Handbook for College Faculty. San Francisco:
Barros, E. H. (2011) Collaborative learning in the translation classroom: preliminary survey results. The Journal of Specialised Translation 16,
Fawcett, P. (1997) Translation and Language: Linguistic Theories Explained. Manchester: St. Jerome Publishing.
Daradoumis, T., Caballé, S., Juan, A. A. & Xhafa, F. (eds.)(2011) Technology-Enhanced Systems and Tools for Collaborative Learning Scaffolding. Berlin, Heidelberg : Springer Berlin Heidelberg.
Dybiec, J. (2008) Tourists guidebooks: Tackling cultural identities in translator training pedagogy: A Polish-Portuguese case study. 5th International Week
of ESEC: Proceedings. Poland: Pedagogical University of Cracow.
Hatim, B., & Mason, I. (1990) Discourse and the Translator. Harlow: Longman Group.
Ho, G. (2004) Translating advertisements across heterogeneous cultures. The Translator10(2), 221-244.
Jettmarova, Z., Piotrowska, M., & Zauberga, I. (1997) New advertising markets as target areas for translation. In M. Snell-Hornby, Z. Jettmarova, and K
Kaindl (eds) Translation as Intercultural Communication: Selected Papers from the EST Congress, Prague 1995. Amsterdam: John Benjamins, 185-194.
Király, D. C. (1995) Pathway to Translation: Pedagogy and Process. Kent, OH: Kent State University Press.
---. (2000) A Social Constructivist Approach to Translator Education. Manchester, UK: St. Jerome.
Király, Donald and students in the Innovation in Translator Training Seminar (2003) Summary of discussion on collaboration, teamwork and group work.
In Pym, A et al (eds)(2003) Innovation and e-Learning in Translation Training. Reports on Online Symposia. Tarragona: Universiitat Rovira I Virgili,
Munday, J. (2001) Introducing Translation Studies: Theories and Applications. London: Routledge.
---. (2008) The Routledge Companion to Translation Studies. 2nd Edition. London: Routledge.
Nord, C. (1997) Translating as a Purposeful Activity: Functionalist Approaches Explained. Manchester: St: Jerome.
Liao, P. S. (2007) College students' translation strategy use. Studies in English Language and Literature(19), 77-88.
Lörscher, W. (1992) Investigating the translation process. MetaXXXVII(3), 426-440.
Roberts, T. S.
(2005) Computer-supported Collaborative Learning in Higher Education. Idea Group Publishing.
Rubens, W., Emans, B., Leinonen, T., Skarmeta, A. G., Robert-Jan Simons, R. (2005) Design of web-based collaborative learning environments. Translating the
pedagogical learning principles to human computer interface. Computers & Education 45, 276-294.
Romney, C. (1996) The benefits of collaborative learning. New Currents 3.6. Access at < http://www.ucalgary.ca/pubs/Newsletters/Currents/Vol3.6/Benefits.html
---. (1997) Collaborative learning in a translation course. The Canadian Modern Language Review 54(1), 48-67.
Smith, V., and Klein-Braley, C. (1997) Advertising-A five-stage strategy for translation. In M. Snell-Hornby, Z. Jettmarova, and K Kaindl (eds) Translation as Intercultural Communication: Selected Papers from the EST Congress, Prague 1995. Amsterdam: John Benjamins, 173-184.
Su-zhen, J. (2008). Skopos theory and translating strategies of cultural elements in tourism texts. Sino-US English Teaching5/9: 34-37.
Wang, H. C. (2009) Design-based research on developing cooperative translation tasks. PhD Thesis, Taiwan: National Cheng Chi University.
Zhao, J. H. & Akahori, K. (2001) Web-based collaborative learning methods and strategies in higher education. Proceedings of 2nd
International Conference on Information Technology Based Higher Education and Training. Japan: Kumamoto.
Yeh, C. C. (2011) Implementing a book translation project in the translation classroom. Studies of Translation and Interpretation 14, 135-168.
史宗玲 (2000) How to make collaborative translation teaching better。《清雲學報》，20(1),