Volume 7, No. 1 
January 2003

  Per Dohler





From the Editor
Give Credit Where Credit Is Due

Index 1997-2003

  Translator Profiles
How Not to Become a Translator
by Per Dohler

  The Profession
The Bottom Line
by Fire Ant & Worker Bee
It's a Small World
by Steve Vlasta Vitek
Translation: A Market in Crisis?
by Danilo Nogueira

Translators Around the World
Análisis de la demanda de traducción en un organismo público en las islas Baleares—El caso de la Dirección General de Economía
Lluch i Dubon, Ferran y Belmonte Juan, Roser
In Memoriam
Harvie Jordan, 1943-2002
by Patricia Bobeck
David Orpin, 1946-2002
by Geoffrey Pearl

  Literary Translation
Language Ambiguity: A Curse and a Blessing
by Cecilia Quiroga-Clare
Translation of Literary Style
by Song Xiaoshu, Cheng Dongming

  Translator Education
Translator Training & the Real World: Concrete Suggestions for Bridging the Gap — Part 1
Translator Training & the Real World: Concrete Suggestions for Bridging the Gap — Part 2

  Arts & Entertainment
Translation in a Confined Space—Film Sub-titling—Part 2
by Barbara Schwarz

  Caught in the Web
Web Surfing for Fun and Profit
by Cathy Flick, Ph.D.
Translators’ On-Line Resources
by Gabe Bokor

  Translators’ Tools
Close Windows. Open Doors
by Marc Prior
Translators’ Emporium

Translators’ Job Market

Letters to the Editor

Translators’ Events

Call for Papers and Editorial Policies
Translation Journal
Translator Profile


How Not to Become a Translator

by Per N. Dohler


hen Gabe asked me to "be" the Translator Profile for this issue of his wonderful Translation Journal, I felt opportunity knocking. A typical freelance translator, spending most of his or her time alone in a room (well, alone with the world since the advent of the Internet, but still), will readily discourse at length on just about anything, given a fraction of a chance. My wife Thea, who has had ample occasion to study the social behavior of translators, calls this "translators' logorrhea" and considers it a professional disease.

Anyway, here it goes.

It's easy to waste an immense amount of time repeating everybody else's mistakes.
Uh, well—what can I say. (Ahem, a lot, obviously.) I am a freelance translator (I like to say "independent translator"). My native language is German. My extraction is German, Romanian, Hungarian, Polish-Jewish, and other things I will never know about. My country is Germany, but if I hadn't adopted the U.S. and Sweden on the side I could never stand being here. I translate from English and the Scandinavian languages into German. My fields are dental, medical, financial, marketing, PR, IT, localization. I live and work in Barendorf, a small community in the center of Northern Germany, together with said Thea, who is an independent consultant, my best editor, and a lot of other things that don't belong here. And in case I have forgotten something, you can always look it up at www.triacom.com.

Unfortunately, on top of all that, I am also probably one of the world's most eminent experts on how not to become a translator.

I know what I am talking about. In my first years as a translator I did almost everything wrong, and I certainly made plenty of the most elementary mistakes.

I'd say I wasn't even a translator initially; I was just posing as one. True, I had an academic background in U.S. literature and English linguistics, painfully acquired after meandering through the academic system for too many years (easy enough to do at those unstructured German universities). And, having spent a couple of years in California, I felt that my English was adequate and that I knew a little about the U.S. But that, of course, is nowhere near good enough to hang out one's shingle as a translator.

My first paid translations were done, somewhat accidentally, in 1982, for a professor of history. I had to translate source documents from U.S. history into German for inclusion in an annotated textbook. The volume in question did eventually appear; my contribution was hardly recognizable. But no one told me what I had done wrong, or how.

The next step in that dubious career of mine came over a year later, when my father—a dentist and director of the state dental association—referred Germany's largest dental publisher to me (just like that, he had no idea whether I would perform OK or not). So I started doing dental translations, all of which were edited by my father. ("That may sound good, Per, but it's not what a dentist would ever say!") (HINDSIGHT: What I gained from this cooperation over the next few years was the best practical education in the field I could have had, short of actually becoming a dentist myself.) But from a business angle, the whole setup was a disaster because I simply swallowed what I was fed. I would receive two or three dental articles a month to translate from English into German. I was getting paid by the printed page, a few months after the article appeared in print (if it appeared), at a rate set by the publisher. It was not until over a year later that a new editorial coordinator took pity on me and suggested that I submit an invoice for what I had not heretofore thought of as accounts receivable.

Meanwhile, my M.A. thesis was finally completed, even well received—but there were no jobs for linguists. I'd had an invitation to work toward a Ph.D. at the University of California at Berkeley, but the family finances did not stretch that far. To turn a dead end into something useful, I started out to get a second degree, this time in computer science (there were, and still are, no tuition charges at German universities, so that was no problem). Something with language and computers—that could be hot, or so we thought, even though it was not quite clear how. (HINDSIGHT: This was going to give me an enormous advantage in the 1990s, when localization became a big hit.) To put bread on the table, I continued working for my dental publisher, even acquired a second one and a pharmaceutical company somehow (word of mouth, probably), and audited assorted university-level classes in medicine and dentistry. I managed to muddle through in this manner for some time more.

Finally, one morning in 1988—six years after my first translation!—I looked at myself in the mirror and said, almost a bit surprised, "You, Per, are actually a translator." (HINDSIGHT: I was not, yet.) I dropped out of school, bought a new computer and more dictionaries, sent out some makeshift mailings—I didn't know anything about marketing either—and actually landed one or two new clients.

Everything I ever learned I learned from someone else.
But I still hadn't ever spoken to a "real" translator, had never had a translation of mine critiqued, had been denied membership by the regional translators' association, had never participated in any kind of professional exchange, had never even read a book on the art or the craft of translation—nothing. Despite all that, I was doing relatively well financially, and I even became accredited by the Chamber of Commerce in my home state. I was translating more and more, but I still wasn't a translator. Not until 1991—nine years after my first translation. (HINDSIGHT: Most of the little odds and ends picked up along the way will ultimately come in handy in some translation. There may be no more "renaissance men" in this world, but a broad range of interests does not hurt.)

So what happened in 1991? CompuServe, the U.S.-based online service, started doing serious business in Germany. I signed up and soon found the legendary FLEFO community of translators—then just about the only such online community, with the possible exceptions of sci.lang.translation on Usenet and LANTRA-L , if I remember correctly. A new world opened up for me—the world of actual translation. And actual translators. (And virtual translation. And virtual translators.)

Translators must be one of the most interesting breeds of people. Many are probably a little weird, myself quite possibly not excluded; but most of those I met in the ensuing years—and I met plenty of colleagues at home and abroad over the years, enjoyed their company, enjoyed their hospitality, tried to lure them to Barendorf ("Hotbed of North German Translation"), almost as if to make up for lost time—are really interesting people with strong opinions, which they are eager to try on others. We come from an incredible wealth of backgrounds and bring this diversity to the incredible wealth of worlds that we translate from and into.

I don't know who said it, I may even have made this up myself: "Everything I ever learned I learned from someone else." In my case, when it comes to the art, the craft, and the business of translation, the "someone else" would usually have been someone I originally met on FLEFO, and the time would have been the early 1990s.

So in this manner, I became a translator after all. Things have been largely uphill ever since.

Appendix 1: How To Be a Translator

I am afraid more people than care to admit it have taken an equally long time and equally circuitous routes in becoming translators. If you are just starting out, save yourself some valuable time. Do not emulate our haphazard paths. Instead, proceed as follows:

  • Take a sober inventory of what you bring to the job. All of us—all of us!—have learned interesting things in our lives, which might be useful in one way or another when translating in various fields. But if you lack certain essentials—for example, if you are not a good writer in your native language—then do consider pursuing a different path.
  • Take a sober inventory of what you still need to acquire. Then acquire it. Spend some time on training first—it need not be in translation as such—specialty fields are just as important for many. Allow yourself some time abroad; read, read, read; and listen, listen, listen. Even if you think you already have a solid foundation and you have work, set aside enough time so that you can still do all of the above on the side.
  • Seek out colleagues wherever you can. Good places to look are Internet "hangouts" for translators and (yes) translators' associations. Collaborate whenever you have a chance. Edit and be edited, even if you hate editing. Above all, keep your mind open. What we learn today isn't going to last us a lifetime!
  • Don't deceive yourself into thinking you are some kind of an artist enjoying artists' (and fools') privileges—99% of the time you are not.
  • Think of yourself as a businessperson first and foremost. Be dependable. Be available. Be visible. Be serious. Market yourself. Stick to deadlines religiously. Don't guess what your customer needs—if you aren't 100% sure, ask. If you don't like what you hear, say no. If you are called upon to do something you cannot do, say no. But if you do engage in a contract, abide by its terms. Sound trivial? You'd be surprised how many translators fail in precisely these trivial things. The most rigorous translation is worthless if it arrives after that atomic power plant blows up.
  • Develop a set of negative criteria for those projects you don't want to do. Then don't do them.
  • Develop an O.K. set of positive criteria for those projects you really do want to do. Then pursue them whenever you have a minute to spare.
  • Determine where you want to go. Ask yourself: What would I like my professional life to be, say, ten years from now? From time to time, calibrate the things you do on a daily basis against that overall goal.


Appendix 2: Truisms ... or Controversial Food for Thought


  • It has been predicted that translators would be obsolete "in ten years" for about fifty years now. These predictions will probably continue to be issued regularly for the next fifty years.
  • There are translators who claim they never allow a less-than-perfect translation to leave their desk. They are lying.


  • Translation is not a commodity. (Translators are usually not freely interchangeable.)
  • Translation is a potentially scarce item. (Neither the number of its producers nor their output can be increased at will.)
  • Translation is not scalable. (Volume discounts in translation don't make sense.)
  • Terminology is to translation what trees are to the forest. But you often don't see the latter for the former.
  • There is no such thing as a perfect translation. There isn't even such a thing as a translation most people would consider pretty good.
  • "Quality" in the sense used in ISO 900x has nothing, absolutely nothing to do with "good" or "bad." ISO 900x is not applicable to mental activities such as translation.


  • All marketing methods (such as a website) work best as part of an overall marketing concept. Such a concept need not be aggressive. But why not try "quietly pervasive"?
  • There are clients with low-quality needs, clients with top-quality needs, and the gamut in between. There are translators to accommodate all those markets. Over time, the choice is ours.
  • A company that is a delinquent payer will probably stay a delinquent payer. Caveat vendor.


  • Like all other human activities, translation is subject to the law of diminishing returns. Happy translators know when to stop worrying about the remaining details.
  • There are more translators earning decent money than the general chorus of complaining suggests.
  • Saying no to unreasonable demands may do nothing for your checking account in the short run, but it will work wonders for your self-esteem in the long run.
  • The Internet revolution is actually over. The CAT revolution is actually over. The next revolution has not yet surfaced. Those who catch it early will be ahead of the game. But don't expect anyone to tip you off—you have to look around for yourself.


  • Our most precious tool, beyond our brains, is our own data on our own computers. Dictionaries, programs, CD-ROMs can usually be replaced if lost. Our own original data can't be.
  • CAT tools make translation faster. They can make translation more consistent. But CAT has pitfalls, such as disparate translation memories, which probably lie at the bottom of a lot of incoherent translations—mumbo-jumbo like nothing anyone would have ever come up with before CAT.